ethnic cleansing 民族浄化

※weed out =根絶やしにする、抹殺する、(雑草など)を取り除く
     weed 雑草  sea weed 海草

wipe out=~を根絶する、消去する
   root out

be butchered が虐殺される
800,000 people were butchered in Rwanda

homicide=殺人(事件)、 (米)警察の殺人課
murder=(意図的な)殺人、謀殺、を殺害する (DUO-2123)


kill, slay 殺害する

suicide 自殺する

annihilate を大量に殺す
annihilation 全滅、絶滅 (1級・文単)  

※be sacked=クビになる、解雇される(イギリス、BBCで頻出語、英検準1には出ない)
be fired
be laid off
be made redundant (準1・文で覚える単熟語 P301-16)     
     redundant 余分な、過剰な、
cf. abundant 豊富な
be dismissed

be out of work 失業中で( in work 職に就いて)
unemployment 失業(率)
※doze off=居眠りする
drowse うとうとする
   drowsy[drauzy] 眠い(sleepy)
      cf. dizzy (形) 目まいがする

stay up late 夜更かしする(DUO-1501)
sit up late
stay up doing 寝ないで~する

sleep on~ (結論など)を翌日に出す、一晩寝て考える
    sleeep on it よく考えておく

insomnia 不眠症  (準1・文で覚える単熟語 P112-1)  

turn in 床に就く(go to bed)、提出する(submit /hand in/ put foward)

BBC News -
Rwanda genocide 100 days of slaughter
7 April 2014


In just 100 days in 1994, some 800,000 people were slaughtered in Rwanda by ethnic Hutu extremists. They were targeting members of the minority Tutsi community, as well as their political opponents, irrespective of their ethnic origin.

※irrespective of~=~に関係なく

Why did the Hutu militias want to kill the Tutsis?


About 85% of Rwandans are Hutus but the Tutsi minority has long dominated the country. In 1959, the Hutus overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and tens of thousands of Tutsis fled to neighbouring countries, including Uganda. A group of Tutsi exiles formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), which invaded Rwanda in 1990 and fighting continued until a 1993 peace deal was agreed.



On the night of 6 April 1994 a plane carrying then President Juvenal Habyarimana, and his counterpart Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi - both Hutus - was shot down. Hutu extremists blamed the RPF and immediately started a well-organised campaign of slaughter. The RPF said the plane had been shot down by Hutus to provide an excuse for the genocide.

1994年4月6日の夜、当時のジュベナル・ハビャリマナ大統領とシプリン・ンタリャミラブルンジ大統領(両者ともフツ族)を乗せた飛行機が撃墜された。フツ族の過激派は、(ツチ族の)RPF を非難し、直ちに十分に組織化された殺害行為を始めた。(ツチ族の)RPFは、この飛行機はフツ族が(ツチ族を対象にした)大虐殺の言い訳にするために撃墜したのだ、と主張した。

※one's counterpart=すぐ前に出てきた人を所有格にして同じ地位を意味する代名詞的単語として使われている。

How was the genocide carried out?

With meticulous organisation. Lists of government opponents were handed out to militias who went and killed them, along with all of their families. Neighbours killed neighbours and some husbands even killed their Tutsi wives, saying they would be killed if they refused. At the time, ID cards had people's ethnic group on them, so militias set up roadblocks where Tutsis were slaughtered, often with machetes which most Rwandans kept around the house. Thousands of Tutsi women were taken away and kept as sex slaves.



Did anyone try to stop it?

The UN and Belgium had forces in Rwanda but the UN mission was not given a mandate to stop the killing. A year after US troops were killed in Somalia, the US was determined not to get involved in another African conflict. The Belgians and most UN peacekeepers pulled out after 10 Belgian soldiers were killed. The French, who were allies of the Hutu government, sent a force to set up a supposedly safe zone but were accused of not doing enough to stop the slaughter in that area. Rwanda's current president has accused France of taking part in the massacres - a charge denied by Paris.


 a mandate to do ~するようにとの命令(指令)
 mandatory 強制的な、義務的な、必須の

※be determined to do=~することを決心している

Why was it so vicious?

Rwanda has always been a tightly controlled society, organised like a pyramid from each district up to the top of government. The then governing party, MRND, had a youth wing called the Interahamwe, which was turned into a militia to carry out the slaughter. Weapons and hit-lists were handed out to local groups, who knew exactly where to find their targets.


The Hutu extremists set up radio stations and newspapers which broadcast hate propaganda, urging people to "weed out the cockroaches" meaning kill the Tutsis. The names of those to be killed were read out on radio. Even priests and nuns have been convicted of killing people, including some who sought shelter in churches.


※weed out =根絶やしにする、抹殺する、(雑草など)を取り除く
     weed 雑草  sea weed 海草

How did it end?

The well-organised RPF, backed by Uganda's army, gradually seized more territory, until 4 July, when its forces marched into the capital, Kigali. Some two million Hutus - both civilians and some of those involved in the genocide - then fled across the border into DR Congo, at that time called Zaire, fearing revenge attacks.


※DR Congo=DRコンゴ、コンゴ民主共和国

Human rights groups say the RPF killed thousands of Hutu civilians as they took power - and more after they went into DR Congo to pursue the Interahamwe. The RPF denies this. In DR Congo, thousands died from cholera, while aid groups were accused of letting much of their assistance fall into the hands of the Hutu militias.


What happened in DR Congo?

The genocide in Rwanda has directly led to two decades of unrest in DR Congo, which have cost the lives of an estimated five million people. Rwanda's government, now run by the RPF, has twice invaded DR Congo, accusing its much larger neighbour of letting the Hutu militias operate on its territory. Rwanda has also armed local Congolese Tutsi forces. In response, some locals have formed self-defence groups and the civilians of eastern DR Congo have paid the price.


What is Rwanda like now?

RPF leader and President, Paul Kagame, has been hailed for overseeing rapid economic growth in the tiny country. He has also tried to turn Rwanda into a technological hub and is very active on Twitter. But his critics say he does not tolerate dissent and several opponents have met unexplained deaths. Almost two million people were tried in local courts for their role in the genocide and the ring-leaders at a UN tribunal in neighbouring Tanzania. It is now illegal to talk about ethnicity in Rwanda - the government says this is to prevent more bloodshed but some say it prevents true reconciliation and is just putting a lid on tensions, which will only boil over again in the future.


BBC News -
Chicago train crash driver who 'fell asleep' is sacked
5 April 2014

※be sacked=クビになる、解雇される

A Chicago train operator, whose train derailed last month when she dozed off, has been sacked, officials say.

※doze off=居眠りする

Thirty-two people were hurt when the Chicago Transit Authority train jumped its tracks at O'Hare International Airport and hurtled up an escalator.

※ hurtle=猛烈な速さで進む

The woman, 25, worked as an operator for two months and reportedly admitted it was not the first time she had dozed off at work.
None of the injuries at the busy airport was said to be serious.

※reportedly =伝えられるところによると、報道によると、


BBC News -
Philippines files case to UN in South China Sea dispute
31 March 2014

※file case to=~へ事件を提出する
  file a suit=訴訟を起こす

The Philippines has submitted evidence to a UN tribunal hearing its case against China's territorial claims in the South China Sea.

Both sides have overlapping claims in the sea, leading to severe tensions.

China has refused to take part in the arbitration and warned that the case will damage bilateral ties.


The latest move comes a day after a Philippine ship evaded Chinese vessels to bring supplies to troops stationed on a disputed shoal.


       tax evasion 脱税.

China claims a U-shaped swathe of the South China Sea - creating multiple overlaps with areas claimed by the Philippines, Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia and Taiwan.

※claim~=lay claim to~=~の領有権を主張する
    China claims a U-shaped swathe of the South China Sea
  =China lays claim to a U-shaped swathe of the South China Sea
※a swathe of~=(土地など)の広がり
  a swathe of forest 森林の広がり

The Philippines says that China's claims are illegal under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

※the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea=国連海洋法条約

In January, the Philippines asked the UN's Permanent Court of Arbitration to consider its case. It is thought that the court may not reach a decision before the end of 2015.


※Permanent Court of Arbitration =国際司法裁判所






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